Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most widely used technique in diagnosis and research for detection of proteins in tissues and cells. In Immunohistochemistry, a tissue sample from a patient is treated with antibodies that bind to the specific target molecule, for example a cancerous cell. These are made visible under a microscope by using a colormetric or fluorimetric dye however radioisotopes and colloidal gold may also be used if appropriate. Immunohistochemistry is used to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer, and to test for the the presence of microorganisms. It is also used in cell biology research to study how cells grow and differentiate and react to external stimulus. Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells.
There are two main methods for carrying out an IHC procedure, the first is the direct method, a one-step stain which involves a labeled antibody (e.g. FITC-conjugated) reacting directly with the target antigen in tissue sections. While this technique utilizes only one antibody and therefore is simple and rapid, the sensitivity is lower due to little signal amplification, in contrast to indirect approaches.
The indirect method involves the use of an unlabeled primary antibody that binds to the target antigen in the tissue and a labeled secondary antibody that reacts with the primary antibody. This method is more sensitive than direct detection strategies because of signal amplification due to the binding of several secondary antibodies to each primary antibody.
Fitzgerald Industries offers a vast range of primary and secondary antibodies in monoclonal and polyclonal formats which are ideally suited to immunohistochemistry applications. We offer conjugated and unconjugated antibodies specific for most major tumor markers, cancer proteins, viral and infectious disease antibodies and thousands more.
Some of our most popular IHC antibodies include:
MUC1 antibody: MUC1 performs a protective function by binding to pathogens and also functions in a cell signaling capacity. Overexpression, aberrant intracellular localization, and changes in glycosylation of this protein have been associated with carcinomas. This monoclonal MUC1 antibody is suitable for both Immunohistochemistry-Frozen (IHC-F) and Immunohistochemistry-Parrafin (IHC-P). Some of our best polyclonals anti-MUC1 options include rabbit polyclonal MUC1 antibody which can be used in both Western blotting and IHC. Staining using this MUC1 antibody is shown below in ppithelial cells of renal tubule in human kidney.
MUC1 antibody was used for immunohistochemistry at a concentration of 4-8 ug/ml
to stain epithelial cells of renal tubule (arrows) in Human Kidney. Magnification is at 400X
CA 15-3 antibody: CA15-3 (Cancer Antigen 15-3) is an important tumor marker used to monitor breast cancer. It is found on the surface of many types of cancer cells and shed into the blood stream. This monoclonal CA 15-3 antibody is highly purified and rated for use in ELISA as well as immunochemistry. Check out some of our other Tumor Markers.
TNF alpha antibody: The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF is able to induce apoptotic cell death, to induce inflammation, and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication. This monoclonal TNF alpha antibody offers excellent results in both ELISA and Immunohistochemistry. We also provide a broad range of polyclonal TNF alpha antibodies including this TNF alpha antibody which is excellent when used with paraffin sections and also in Western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining using this rabbit polyclonal TNF alpha antibody is shown below.
Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded section of Human
Mammary Cancer Tissue
Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC): This is one of our most popular IHC validated secondary antibodies, it also offers excellent results in Flow Cytometry and Immunofluorescence.
HIV1 p24 antibody: The p24 antigen is a useful target for rapid diagnosis of HIV, this goat polyclonal HIV1 p24 antibody offers excellent results in immunohistochemistry as well as ELISA and Western Blot.