GAPDH or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is an important housekeeping enzyme expressed at high levels in most tissues and cells which has both phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions. GAPDH also functions in intracellular processes such as membrane fusion, microtubule bundling, phosphotransferase activity, nuclear RNA export, DNA replication and DNA repair.
GAPDH catalyzes the 6th step in the glycolytic breakdown of glucose, an important pathway of energy and carbon molecule supply which takes place in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. For this reason it is a widely studied molecule in areas such as cell biology, metabolism and inflammation.
GAPDH is considered a 'house keeping' gene as it is essential for the maintenance of several functions in cells.GAPDH antibodies are normally used as loading controls in Western blotting due to its high level of constitutive expression. Showing evidence of equal protein loading is a key validation step in Western blotting experiments and it is performed by re-probing the nitrocellulose membrane with a GAPDH antibody. In addition, GAPDH antibodies can simply be used to detect the presence of GAPDH in tissues and cells.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin embedded human breast carcinoma (left) and kidney carcinoma(right), showing cytoplasmic localization using GAPDH antibody (10R-1931) with DAB staining
Fitzgerald Industries offers a range of GAPDH proteins from recombinant GAPDH protein expressed in E.coli, native GAPDH protein purified from human cardiac muscle. We also offer a native rabbit GAPDH protein as well as conjugated GAPDH protein (GST tag), ideal for use in ELISA assays, SDS-PAGE or Western blotting. We also offer a selection of synthetic GAPDH blocking peptide for use as blocking control in Western blot and IHC assays in conjunction with our GAPDH antibody.